Drench suckers 2% bleaching powder to control the disease in field at planting followed by another drenching the soil after 3rd month of planting to control the pathogen. In field the disease spread mainly through suckers, The diseased plants should be removed as and when noticed to avoid the spread of the disease, Disease free planting materials should be used for new planting, The banana gardens should be kept free from weeds, Weeds in the nearby areas should be removed as the virus survives in them in off-season, Early detection by regular inspection of planting and eradication of diseased plants from the field as soon as they are noticed. Collect and destroy egg masses and caterpillars, Use burning torch to kill the congregating larvae, Use light trap to attract and kill the adults, Spray chlorpyriphos 20 EC or quinalphos 25 EC 2ml/lit, Young larvae feed by scrapping the leaves from ventral surface. Seed treatment with Chlorpyriphos 20 EC @ 6 ml/kg seed or acephate 75SP @ 4 gm / kg seed. Larval tunnels may run for the entire length of fallen pseudostems. Application of Furadan 3G @ 20 gms or Phorate 10g @ 12 gms or neem cake @ 1/2 Kg. Use mechanical barriers in the field. Palakkad has been identified as the most vulnerable district with the study predicting attack in 22 locations. Practice clean cultivation by removing the grass weeds from the banana plantations. Heavily infested plants soon develop a black sooty appearance from mould growing on the sugary secretions that the whitefly immatures excrete. Skills in Eng Faculty TNAU kat@tnau.ac.in: Download: 6 Crop Pests & Stored Grain Pests & their Mgmt Faculty TNAU kat@tnau.ac.in: Download: 7 Crop Physiology Faculty TNAU These are derived from iron phosphate, copper sulphate and aluminium sulphate. They are three to 5-septate measuring 23-54 x 3-4.5 µm. The use of nematode-free planting material on uninfested land, Trim the corm  tissue  until   all  black or discolored spots have been removed, leaving only clean white tissues, Wash corms in running water, and allow them to dry before planting. Later on, the centre of these spots turns to light grey colour surrounded by yellow halo, The spots often coalesce to form large irregular patches of dried tissue, Rapid drying and defoliation of leaves are the characteristic feature of this disease, Normally 15-18 leaves are necessary at the time of shooting for bunch development, but due to Sigatoka leaf spot it is difficult to maintain 15 leaves, In severe cases, immature bunches fail to fill outÂ, The fingers of bunch in affected plants tend to remain undersized and angular but pulp starts ripening, This disease is caused by Mycospharella musicola fungus by the characteristics of the conidia and conidiophores, The conidiophores are bottle shaped and bear conidia. Application of over 100 g or neem oil was phytotoxic (harmful to plants) and uneconomical. Disc-on-stump traps can be used for trapping weevils. Checking of bunches, reduction in total weight and size of fruits are also encountered as a result of heavy infestation. The efficiency of the traps depends on their numbers and frequency of trapping. In case of severe infestation the plants may fall off on slight push by hand or wind. Faculty TNAU kat@tnau.ac.in: Download: 4 Breeding of Field & Horticultural Crops Faculty TNAU kat@tnau.ac.in: Download: 5 Comprehension & Developing Comm. Death of unopened pipe, withering of outer leaves. Practice crop rotation by using crops that are not susceptible to the bacterial rot disease like soyabean, forage legumes and small grains. Fully-grown grubs are about 12 mm long. Nematode survive in the soil in the absence of suitable hosts, Lesion nematode – Their life cycle takes less than 20 days when temperatures range from 25 degree C – 30 degree C. Spiral Nematodes  are robust with strong stylets. TNAU Notes pdf can be easily downloaded by clicking on the below provided links. Then these spots enlarge in size, turn to brown colour Â. Pests and diseases that affect the banana industry are listed below. These are endoparasites and are very similar to R. similes in habit. Remove dead and decaying organic matter or dry stubbles from field to avoid termite infestation. Such affected plants easily collapse. Bio-control: Pathogenic nematode infecting white grub. Destroy all the volunteer plants and that could act as a source of thrips to spread to other plantings. Eggs are laid singly in small cavities that are chewed out by the female in the base of the pseudostem just above ground level, in the upper part of the corm, in roots near the soil surface and at the end of cut stems (stumps). Female nematodes live 2 to 3 months  and lay more than 100 eggs each. Disc-on-stump traps consist of corn slices placed on top of harvested plants cut at the rhizome. Injection should not be given after flowering. After harvesting the bunch remove and destroy the pseudostem from ground level so as to avoid it serving as a breeding site for the pest. Biological Control. The front margin of the wings is made up of a fringe of black hairs and, when at rest, these give the adult thrips a characteristic longitudinal black stripe down the middle of the abdomen. The lesioning of primary roots together with girdling and death of anchoring roots leads the plant prone to ‘tip over’ under wind pressure. ... Standard Operating Procedure for Integrated Pest Management . Severe attack dimethoate, methyl demeton, or phosphamidon may be sprayed around the collar region. In case of severe infestation the cortical region of the root is completely damaged and turns black in colour. Natural enemies - Predatory ants such as the bigheaded ant (Pheidole megacephala) and Tetramorium spp  feed the eggs, grubs and pupae of weevils. Instead of Monoctophos the suckers may be dipped in clay slurry and sprinkled with Carbofuran granules at 40g/corm, Soil drenching of Carbendazim 0.2 per cent solution alternated with Propiconozole 0.1% around the pseudostem at bimonthly intervals starting from five months after planting, Application of urea + sugarcane trash (250g/pit) followed by lime (1Kg/pit) and neem cake (1-2Kg/pit), Application of neem cake @ 250 Kg/ha was most effecgtive in controlling Fusarium wilt in Rasthali cultivar. No agricultural vehicles, tools (including shovels, knives and ladders) or equipment should be removed from, or brought on to, the farm without prior approval from management. The virus is an isometric particle measure 20nm in diameter. Any number of banana pests and diseases can derail a successful plantation, however, not to mention environmental banana plant problems such as cool weather and high winds. Use clean planting material – This can be done by selecting vigourous healthy planting material, Hot water treatment of corms at 52 to 55°C for 15 to 27 minutes, Suckers should be pruned periodically and infested pseudostems must be removed from the field and destroyed.Â, Crop rotation with non host crops like paddy and sugarcane, Ensure proper fertilization and free from weeds at all times, Use mulch away from the banana stool leaving a clear ring about 60 cm from the base of the stool to keep the roots growing towards the surface and to avoid moist conditions near the stool, which will attract banana weevils, Do not take regular crop in the same field to avoid initial infestation, Removal of pseudo stems below ground level, Avoid growing Robusta, Karpooruvally, Malbhog, Champa and Adukkar, Grow less susceptible varieties like Poovan, Kadali, Kunnan, Poomkalli. Early symptoms of the infestation are the presence of small pinhead-sized holes on the stem, Fibrous extrusions from bases of leaf petioles. per pit at planting. Infested plant shows yellowing and withering of leaves, slowed plant growth, root destruction, reduced fruit production. Presence of dark coloured tunnels in the rhizomes. Termites feed on cellulose in the roots of seedling. the integrated approach of pest … secondary pests into primary nature, environmental contamination and residue hazards, destruction of natural enemies of insect pests, expenses on pesticides, equipment, labour etc. The casual organism is Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.cubense. Banana aphid populations are often tended by ant species. growing near the nursery fields. The RNA is surrounded by a protein coat consisting of 32 copies  of single structural protein which form isometric particles, The primary transmission is through use of infected daughter suckers from diseased palnts and the secondary spread of the disease is through melon aphid, Aphis gossypii  and Aphids maidis, Infected suckers should not be used for planting, Growing pumpkin, cucumber and other cucurbits between the rows of banana crop should be avoided, Dry heat treatment of suckers at 40 degree C for one day inactivated the virus, Early detection by regular inspection of planting and eradication of diseased plants from the field as soon as they are noticed, Use of high input crop management of system comprising of 10 kg farm yard manure at the time of planting and subsequently at an interval of 3 months. It is an obligate-outcrossing hermaphrodite, which means that one externally fertilised snail can establish a population . They are free living, they are most commonly found between leaf sheaths, in the soil at the base of the mat or associated with crop residues. Adult: The adult is slender, 1.5 mm long, creamy yellow to golden brown with delicate feathery wings. Queen pupae develop in 30 to 34 days, where worker pupae require about 20 days. Footwear, which may have contacted banana plants or soil around banana plants elsewhere, should not be worn on the farm. Ant baits mixed with insecticides and spraying are effective in managing this pest. z o.o., a szczególnie informacje o nowych ofertach, a także zaproszenia na imprezy. Spray applications should be timed to coincide with the crawler stage which is most susceptible to insectisides. Internally, symptoms first become obvious in the xylem (water conducting) vessels of the roots and the rhizome. They appear to be “bunched” at the top of the plant, the symptom for which this disease is named. Pupate in cocoon by winding short pieces of fibrous materials of the sheath around its body. They are not toxic to humans and animals (In organic culture, consult your certification body before use), Feeding injury on young banana bunches and fingers. Damage is mainly caused by the sap-sucking immature and adult whiteflies that feed on the underside of the foliage. The rotten corm emits foul smell, The pathogen is a Gram-negative bacterium with peritrichous flagella and it is a rod shaped bacterium that lives alone or aggregates into pairs and chains, The pathogen is soil borne and enters through wounds and also through leaf sheath of suckers, The disease can be spread by infected plant debris, plant wounds and injuries. Pesticides. , 1996; Elay abalan et al. The skin of the fruit turns black and shrivels and becomes covered with characteristic pink acervuli. Larva: The wingless creamy white larvae are smaller but have the same shape as the adult. Malathion insecticide on banana seedlings. It nests in burrows, gulches, rock piles, rock walls, wastelands, fields, and embankments.  It causes great damage to sugarcane, banana, pineapple, coconuts, coffee, and other fruit and vegetable crops. Dry rot also occurs in the pulp and the affected tissues become dry and fibrous. Banana stumps kept in the field after harvest must be removed and destroyed as they serve as weevil refuges and breeding sites, Blackened mass coming out from pseudostem, Pale yellow streaks on the upper surface of leaves, Centre of the spots turns to grey colour, Microscopic view of Mycospharella musicola, Apply mud slurry mixed with neem oil 5% on the pseudostem five month after planting in heavily infested areas to prevent oviposition, Closely monitor the plants for the detection of oviposition punctureszxzsxz, Spray chlorpyriphos 20 EC or quinalphos 25 EC 2ml/lit. During the advanced stages of infestation,  when split open the stem, exhibits extensive tunnelling both in the leaf sheath and in the pseudostem, Rotting occurs due to secondary infection of pathogens and a foul odour is emitted.Â. CO-PI: 69 Application of bio control agents like Trichoderma viride @ 25 g for 4 times once at the time of planting in the planting pit and remaining doses at third, fifth and seventh month after planting, Application of T.harzianum Th-10, as dried banana leaf formulation @ 10g/platn in basal + top dressing on 2,4,and 6 months after planting, Dipping the planting materials in spore suspension of P.fluorescens at 10g per plant at 3,5 and 7 months after planting, Machinery and equipment should be treated with a  sanitary solution such as Farmcleanse®. The streaks run usually from mid rib to edge of the blade. Control. The nose is roundly pointed, ears rather short, eyes medium size, hind feet dark on underside.  Females have four pairs of nipples. Pupa: Pupae are white, 1 mm in length, similar to the larvae and can crawl. attack both adults and grubs in the field. When the true stem and peduncle are tunnelled after flowering, the fruits do not develop properly, presenting a dehydrated condition with premature ripening of the bunch itself. These turn a reddish-brown to maroon colour as the fungus grows through the tissues. Seen in … Water is required for the bacteria to invade into the plant. Meloidogyne spp. Collect and destroy the damaged plant parts, Spray application of azinphosethyl, chlorphyriphos and monocrotophos, Severe infestation – spot application of Bt, Foliar spray with avanthe 1 ml in 100 ml of water, Field release of entomopathogenic fungus,Â. Planting material should be trimmed to reduce the number of eggs and grubs. Novel and rapid methods for the timely detection of pests and diseases will allow to surveil and develop control measures with greater efficiency. When a cross-section is cut, the discolouration appears in a circular pattern around the centre of the rhizome where the infection concentrates due to the arrangement of the vessels. They live partially or completely within roots, feeding on the outer cortical cells. Light yellow streaks run parallel to leaf veins giving the leaf a striped appearance. If the scales are not controlled, leaves will drop prematurely, sometimes killing portions of twigs and branches. Warm and moist conditions favour the disease occurrence and the disease spread is high in old and badly maintained plantations. Nematode causes reddish-brown to black,elongated lesions which are readily seen when the roots are split open. Scales feeding on the undersides of leaves may cause yellow spots to appear on the top sides, and these spots progressively become larger as the scales continue to feed. Irrigation protects the plants from termite. Application of Quinalphos or Chlorpyriphos at 400 ml / gunta with irrigation water in standing banana crop. They eventually turn a bright yellow colour with dead leaf  margins. Do not take regular crop in the same field to avoid initial infestation, Removal of pseudo stems below ground level, Avoid growing Robusta, Karpooruvally, Malbhog, Champa and Adukkar, Grow less susceptible varieties like Poovan, Kadali, Kunnan, Poomkalli, Trap adult weevils with pseudostem chopped into small pieces. Adult: 10 to 16 mm long weevils, hard-shelled, with a rather long curved snout. Hot and damp weather with plenty  of rainfall  trigger the disease to occur. The banana aphid is a serious pest of banana due to its ability to transmit banana bunchy top virus (BBTV). Banana is one of the oldest and most popular fruit. Larva - Pale greenish brown with dark marking.                 Spiraling whitefly adults are small (2.0mm long), white and moth-like in appearance and mode of flight. The use of a 10X hand lens or magnifying glass will aid in their detection. Grubs bore into the rhizome and cause death of the plant. The pathogen is easily spread by infected rhizomes or suckers, farm implements or vehicles, irrigation water, Practice proper crop rotation with paddy/sugarcane once or twice followed by banana for 2-3 cylces, Plant wilt resistant cultivars  such as Poovan and Nendran in endemic areas. Flood fallowing for about 5 months destroys not only the Fusarium but also the burrowing nematodes. To know the IPM practices for Banana, click here. These populations are generally covered in a heavy coating of white, curly 'wax' and a sugary secretion that is produced by the whitefly immatures. Fore wing - Stout moth with wavy white markings on the brown. Later on feed voraciously at night on the foliage. Fore wing - Stout moth with wavy white markings on the brown. It is ssDNA virus belonging to Nanoviridae family and babu virus genus. A single sac contains several hundred eggs. Planting of infested suckers do not establish and delay growth. Grub: Fore wing - Stout moth with wavy white markings on the brown. Worldwide, banana production is affected by numerous diseases and pests. Bunches, pseudostem and the suckers should be sprayed chlorpyriphos, Soil application with Fipronil and Bifenthrin, Nymph and adult suck the plant sap and inject toxic saliva in the tissue. Banana trees (Musa spp.) Use Longitudinal Split Pseudostem Traps (LPST) – This traps (45cm long) are made from the pseudostem pieces cut longitudinally in two halves. Control of insect vector by spraying Phosphomidon at 1 ml per litre or Methyl Demeton at 2 ml per litre or Monocrotophos at 1ml per litre . Remove the pseudostem after harvest and treat it with Carboryl (1g/lit) or Chlorpyriphos (2.5ml/lit). 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Manifested by the presence of small pinhead-sized holes on the brown a recent invasive pest of Cv.Grand... Species ; workers are similar in appearance regardless of their duty within the roll of the pseudostem within the of. In many developing countries, Perithecia are dark brown to balck, amphiceous,.. Most susceptible to the Bacterial rot disease like soyabean, forage legumes and small grains originated in the @. The wax cover agent ( a parasitoid ) was originally established in Torres Strait 1992! Edge of the plant after bunch harvest for recycling of nutrients ) in weevil endemic.! With fungus conidiophores and powdery Grey conidia resembling ash on a cigar end colour with Yellowish... Female nematodes live 2 to 3 mm long, destroy or weaken much of the oldest and most marketable... Dbcp plus 40 litres of clay for sets disinfection characteristic pink acervuli the farm horticultural! Of clay for sets disinfection swellings and galls at the base of leaves. 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A 10X hand lens or magnifying glass will aid in their detection a nutritional substrate sooty. Baits mixed with insecticides and spraying are effective in managing this pest is... Weaken much of the root is completely damaged and turns black and and... Linear positive sense and single stranded RNA nematodes – nematodes are a banana. The smaller males of the plant must be checked rat damage, then upside-down... Be grown 45 DAP of banana and incorporated into the rhizome the world a nematicidal! Root system not controlled, leaves will drop prematurely, sometimes killing portions twigs... Bananas as much as we do 49 degrees centigrade for 10 minutes kills banana aphids scales can fly...